What inspires us
Dias 12 e 13 de Junho das 10:00 às 18:00, na Praça do Príncipe Real. June 11 2015, 0 Comments
SANTO ANTÓNIO ALTERNATIVO 2015
Dias 12 e 13 de Junho das 10:00 às 18:00, na Praça do Príncipe Real.
Dia 13 de Junho
11H - work in studio - aula de Yoga com Liliana Nuño
16h - Showcooking com gourmeceria
17h - sapateado com Michel de Roubax
Flores, Gourmet, artesanato, moda, chocolates e muito mais.
Saiba quem vai estar presente em www.facebook.com/
Venha nos visitar ao Príncipe Real, contamos com a sua visita ;)
ECOX Partnership May 02 2014, 0 Comments
Willow Pillow and the ECOX center begun a partnership.
Ecox aims that all future moms accessing the latest 3D and 4D technology and can see your baby through the best image quality. Our work begins in 2007 with different health professionals and audiovisual specialists who created the first specialized center in Spain emotional ultrasound.
Easter Sale - 20% Off April 16 2014, 0 Comments
Vamos celebrar Abril no Jardim do Príncipe Real! Nos dias 24 e 25 de Abril vamos à Rua! April 16 2014, 0 Comments
Vamos celebrar Abril no Jardim do Príncipe Real!
Nos dias 24 e 25 de Abril vamos à Rua! Estamos em festa das 11:00 às 20:00 no Jardim do Príncipe Real com programas para todas as idades. Para além da venda de produtos de criadores nacionais (gourmet, design, ilustração, joalharia e muito mais), haverá também pintura mural –técnica graffiti “40 anos 40 conquistas” (coordenação a cargo de Dedicated to Lisboa), workshops (moda, culinária, graffiti), performances, piquenique, concertos e um espaço infantil.
Assim, dias 24 e 25 de Abril vamos ao Príncipe Real! Entre as 11h e as 20h, convidamos todos para a festa!
Willow Pillow no Jardim do Príncipe Real dia 14 Fevereiro das 12-22h February 10 2014, 0 Comments
It´s raining Sales up to 70% * Chuva de Saldos até 70% February 07 2014, 0 Comments
There´s your chance to get Spring-Summer and Autumn-Winter Unique Pieces at Unique Prices!
Just pick it up!
A oportunidade de ficar com peças únicas a preços muito especiais, e não esqueçam os portes são gratuitos em compras superiores a 100€ e podem sempre levantar no atelier sem custos, basta enviar depois um email a combinar o dia!
Viagem pela seleção de Saldos!
PortugaLovers' Partnership February 04 2014, 0 Comments
Since today we have a special partnership with PortugaLovers conditions for members of the International Card.
The PortugaLovers - www.portugalovers.eu - was designed based on unconditional love we feel for Portugal, for its arts, culture and traditions!
Find out more at www.portugalovers.eu / presentation
The conditions offered by Willow Pillow? are:
»10% discount on all parts (Portugal and UK)
»10% discount and free postage for orders shipped to Portugal and UK on orders over € 100
This requires proof PortugaLovers International Card member.
Fabrics, history and usage - SILK June 27 2013, 0 Comments
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons. The best-known type of silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture). The shimmering appearance of silk is due to the triangular prism-like structure of the silk fiber, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles, thus producing different colors.
Silks are produced by several other insects, but generally only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacturing. There has been some research into other silks, which differ at the molecular level. Many silks are mainly produced by the larvae of insects undergoing complete metamorphosis, but some adult insects such as webspinners produce silk, and some insects such as raspy crickets produce silk throughout their lives. Silk production also occurs in Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, and ants), silverfish, mayflies, thrips, leafhoppers, beetles, lacewings, fleas, flies and midges.
The entire production process of silk can be divided into several steps which are typically handled by different entities. Extracting raw silk starts by cultivating the silkworms on Mulberry leaves. Once the worms start pupating in their cocoons, these are dissolved in boiling water in order for individual long fibers to be extracted and fed into the spinning reel.
Silk's absorbency makes it comfortable to wear in warm weather and while active. Its low conductivity keeps warm air close to the skin during cold weather. It is often used for clothing such as shirts, ties, blouses, formal dresses, high fashion clothes, lingerie, pajamas, robes, dress suits, sun dresses and Eastern folk costumes. Silk's attractive luster and drape makes it suitable for many furnishing applications. It is used for upholstery, wall coverings, window treatments (if blended with another fiber), rugs, bedding and wall hangings. While on the decline now, due to artificial fibers, silk has had many industrial and commercial uses, such as in parachutes, bicycle tires, comforter filling and artillery gunpowder bags.
A special manufacturing process removes the outer irritant sericin coating of the silk, which makes it suitable as non-absorbable surgical sutures. This process has also recently led to the introduction of specialist silk underclothing for people with eczema where it can significantly reduce it. New uses and manufacturing techniques have been found for silk for making everything from disposable cups to drug delivery systems and holograms. To produce 1 kg of silk, 104 kg of mulberry leaves must be eaten by 3000 silkworms. It takes about 5000 silkworms to make a pure silk kimono. The construction of silk is called sericulture. The major silk producers are China (54%) and India (14%).
HISTORY OF SILK
According to Chinese tradition, the history of silk began in the 27th century BC. Its use was confined to China until the Silk Road opened at some point during the later half of the first millennium BC. China maintained its virtual monopoly over silk for another thousand years. Not confined to clothing, silk was also used for a number of other applications, including writing, and the colour of silk worn was an important indicator of social class during the Tang Dynasty.
Silk cultivation spread to Japan in around 300 CE, and by 522 the Byzantines managed to obtain silkworm eggs and were able to begin silkworm cultivation. The Arabs also began to manufacture silk during this same time. As a result of the spread of sericulture, Chinese silk exports became less important, although they still maintained dominance over the luxury silk market. The Crusades brought silk production to Western Europe, in particular to many Italian states, which saw an economic boom exporting silk to the rest of Europe. Changes in manufacturing techniques also began to take place during the Middle Ages, with devices such as the spinning wheel first appearing. During the 16th century France joined Italy in developing a successful silk trade, though the efforts of most other nations to develop a silk industry of their own were unsuccessful.
The Industrial Revolution changed much of Europe’s silk industry. Due to innovations in spinning cotton, it became much cheaper to manufacture and therefore caused more expensive silk production to become less mainstream. New weaving technologies, however, increased the efficiency of production. Among these was the Jacquard loom, developed for silk embroidery. An epidemic of several silkworm diseases caused production to fall, especially in France, where the industry never recovered. In the 20th century Japan and China regained their earlier role in silk production, and China is now once again the world’s largest producer of silk. The rise of new fabrics such as nylon reduced the prevalence of silk throughout the world, and silk is now once again a rare luxury good, much less important than in its heyday.
The Silk Road or Silk Route is a historical network of interlinking trade routes across the Afro-Eurasian landmass that connected East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa. The Silk Road includes routes through Syria, Turkey, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan and China.
Extending 4,000 miles (6,437 kilometres), the Silk Road gets its name from the lucrative Chinese silk trade which was carried out along its length, and began during the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). The central Asian sections of the trade routes were expanded around 114 BC by the Han dynasty,[not in citation given] largely through the missions and explorations of Zhang Qian, but earlier trade routes across the continents already existed.
Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the civilizations of China, the Indian subcontinent, Persia, Europe and Arabia. Though silk was certainly the major trade item from China, many other goods were traded, and various technologies, religions and philosophies, as well as the bubonic plague (the "Black Death"), also traveled along the Silk Routes.
The main traders during Antiquity were the Indian and Bactrian traders, then from the 5th to the 8th century the Sogdian traders, then afterward the Arab and Persian traders.
• Gently handwash silk items using very cold water.
• Apply a very mild detergent (this soap will help preserve the garment’s natural oils).
• Rinse the item in cold water until all soap residue has been removed.
• Add a few drops of hair conditioner to the rinse water to keep the silk soft and flexible.
• Press the water out of the fabric by rolling it in a towel. Do not twist or wring, as this will damage the fabric.
• Hang the wet garment and allow it to air dry completely.
• Do not hang silk garments in the sun to dry.
• Iron only when absolutely necessary. Use a cool iron with a press cloth between the iron and the fabric.
In general, machine washing is the worst way to clean silk, as the agitator and other garments can damage the fabric. However, if the instructions for your washing machine state that the machine is safe for silk, there should be no serious problem washing your silk garments in it. Before washing, make sure there's no soap or dirt on the inside of the machine that might stain the silk garment. Place the silk item in a mesh bag or a pillowcase loosely tied closed. Use a small amount of a very mild appropriate detergent and wash on a gentle cycle, such as a wool cycle, at a temperature of no more than 86°F / 30°C.
If you use a spin cycle, keep it as short as possible.
Even if you machine wash, never use a machine dryer to dry silk, as the friction and lack of humidity will likely damage the fabric. Instead, roll the silk item up in a bath towel and gently press the water out. Never wring silk. When most of the water is out, hang your garment up to dry. Keep the garment away from heat sources or direct sunlight, both of which can discolour silk.
Silk should be pressed while still damp, never when completely dry. If the item has dried, dampen it with water from a mineral water spritzer bottle before ironing. To avoid damage, turn the item inside out and iron on the reverse side of the fabric on a cotton-covered ironing board. Use a low setting and don't use steam, which can leave watermarks. Take care not to apply pressure to the seams of the garment.
For long-term storage, keep silk in a cotton pillowcase or other material that can breathe. Avoid plastic, which traps moisture and can cause yellowing and mildew. Silk, like other natural fibers, is a favorite with moths, so store cedar chips or balls with your silk to keep the bugs away.
STAIN REMOVAL TIPS
• Remove any spilled material from silk immediately to prevent it from setting. Remove food or sauce by scraping it off with a clean knife. Blot liquids on silk with a clean cloth dampened with cold water. Treat remaining oil or grease spots by sprinkling with cornstarch or talcum powder and gently patting it into the spot. Leave the powder on overnight to absorb the grease. Brush off the powder; repeat if necessary.
• Sponge lukewarm water onto coffee and tea stains. Gently rub commercially available glycerin into the stain. Leave the glycerin on the stain for a half-hour, then rinse the garment thoroughly in warm water.
• Add 1 tsp. of salt to 1 cup of cold water; dab a clean washcloth into the salt mixture and gently dab on blood stains. Rinse with cold water and repeat if needed. If the salt treatment doesn't work, make a paste with meat tenderizer and just enough water to moisten it. Work the paste into the stain with your fingers; follow with a cold-water rinse.
• Remove perspiration and makeup stains from silk using diluted ammonia. For perspiration stains, use equal parts cool water and ammonia on a clean cloth to dab at the stain. For makeup, mix one part ammonia to three parts water and apply with a clean cloth. Increase the ammonia proportion if needed, to a maximum concentration of equal parts ammonia and water. Follow all ammonia applications with repeated rinsing in cold water.
• Treat wine stains by sprinkling a little cornstarch on the stain to absorb the wine. Brush off the powder. Using a clean cloth, apply a commercial spot-removal product designed for silk directly to the spot. Follow with cool-water rinses.
• Apply a commercial spot-removal product designed specially for silk fabrics for all other stains. Apply as directed on the label and follow up with hand-washing in a gentle liquid detergent and rinsing in cool water.
Fabrics, history and usage - LINEN May 15 2013, 0 Comments
Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant, Linum usitatissimum. Linen is labor-intensive to manufacture, but when it is made into garments, it is valued for its exceptional coolness and freshness in hot weather.
The word "linen" is of Latin origin, plant linum, and the earlier Greek λινόν (linon). This word history has given rise to a number of other terms in English, the most notable of which is the English word line, derived from the use of a linen (flax) thread to determine a straight line.
Textiles in a linen weave texture, even when made of cotton, hemp and other non-flax fibers are also loosely referred to as "linen". Such fabrics generally have their own specific names other than linen; for example, fine cotton yarn in a linen-style weave is called Madapolam.
The collective term "linens" is still often used generically to describe a class of woven and even knitted bed, bath, table and kitchen textiles. The name linen is retained because traditionally, linen was used for many of these items. In the past, the word "linens" was also used to mean lightweight undergarments such as shirts, chemises, waist shirts, lingerie (a word also cognate with linen), and detachable shirt collars and cuffs, which were historically made almost exclusively out of linen. The inside cloth layer of fine composite clothing garments (as for example jackets) was traditionally made of linen, and this is the origin of the word lining.
Linen textiles appear to be some of the oldest in the world: their history goes back many thousands of years. Fragments of straw, seeds, fibers, yarns, and various types of fabrics which date back to about 8000 BC have been found in Swiss lake dwellings.
Dyed flax fibers found in a prehistoric cave in Georgia suggest the use of woven linen fabrics from wild flax may date back even earlier to 36,000 BP.
Linen was sometimes used as currency in ancient Egypt. Egyptian mummies were wrapped in linen because it was seen as a symbol of light and purity, and as a display of wealth. Some of these fabrics, woven from hand spun yarns, were very fine for their day, but are coarse compared to modern linen. Today, linen is usually an expensive textile, and is produced in relatively small quantities. It has a long "staple" (individual fiber length) relative to cotton and other natural fibers.
Many products are made of linen: aprons, bags, towels (swimmers, bath, beach, body and wash towels), napkins, bed linens, linen tablecloths, runners, chair covers, and men's & women's wear.
HISTORY OF LINEN
In ancient Mesopotamia, flax was domesticated and linen was produced. It was mainly used by the wealthier class of the society like priests. The sumerian poem of the courtship of Inanna and Dumuzi (Tammuz; mentions flax and linen. It opens with briefly listing the steps of preparing linen from flax, in a form of questions and answers between Inanna and her brother Utu. In ancient Egypt, linen was used for mummification and for burial shrouds.
It was also worn as clothing on a daily basis; white linen was worn because of the extreme heat. Linen fabric has been used for table coverings, bed coverings and clothing for centuries. The significant cost of linen derives not only from the difficulty of working with the thread, but also because the flax plant itself requires a great deal of attention. In addition flax thread is not elastic, and therefore it is difficult to weave without breaking threads. Thus linen is considerably more expensive to manufacture than cotton.
There is a long history of the production of linen in Ireland. The Living Linen Project was set up in 1995 as an oral archive of the knowledge of the Irish linen industry, which is still available within a nucleus of people who formerly worked in the industry in Ulster.
The discovery of dyed flax fibers in a cave in Georgia dated to 36,000 BP suggests that ancient people used wild flax fibers to create linen-like fabrics from an early date.
The use of linen for priestly vestments was not confined to the Israelites; Plutarch wrote that the priests of Isis also wore linen
because of its purity.
In December 2006, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed 2009 to be the International Year of Natural Fibers in order to raise people's awareness of linen and other natural fibers.
TYPES OF LINEN
Three types of flax are planted:
Flax fibers (linen to thresh) to obtain fibers;
Seed for obtaining linseed oil;
Flax crossing, achieved by crossing flax fiber oil was developed to give an income sufficient fiber and oil. The fiber, however, does not fulfill the expectations deposited therein by the industry.
For the fiber bundle does not suffer interruption, thus lowering the amount of fibers for spinning it is necessary to take care that the stem does not branch. This is achieved by seeding compact. The stems have a height of approximately 50 to 100 cm, the most common length is 80 cm, with the top branch. Flowers, light blue color, develop seed capsules with five stores or cells.
The seed very oily, flat and round, having a diameter of approximately 2 mm. The main interest lies in obtaining flax oil. The plant branching is quite low, yields more flowers, thereby producing greater amount of oil seeds. The extraction of fibers is neglected.
Linen is a gorgeous, comfortable and durable fabric that is made from fibers of the flax plant. Taking care of linen is easy! Moreover, it grows softer and more lustrous with age.
Most popular mistake is a belief that linen is only suitable for dry cleaning. It is not so!
Linen fabric is known to be a material for clothing and other needs for some thousands years before the Christian era, so that probably means it is the world’s oldest natural fiber. And this also means that linens have been around long before any dry cleaners – and have been successfully cared for!
Linen fabrics are much stronger and smoother than cotton and there are only few things to know for your linen textile or clothes to last a long time.
Many people prefer to launder linen, especially table linens, handkerchiefs and bed linen, because the more linen is washed, the softer and more luminous it becomes. Its luminous quality is caused by nodes on the flax fibers, which reflect light. These same people often choose to wash linen articles because they know linen, as a natural fiber, launders beautifully.
Shirts and other garments worn close to the body are easily washed. Freshly washed linen has a naturally clean fragrance and gives one the sense of well-being. In the case of hand or machine washing use a sufficient amount of water since linen is very absorbent.
A variety of drying methods is recommended for linen: line drying, machine drying or rolling in terry towels. Whatever method you use, remember to remove the linen from the line, the dryer or the towels while it is still damp. If linen dries thoroughly, it
becomes brittle and takes several hours to recover its natural moisture and full flexibility. (The natural moisture content of linen is between 6-8%. Linen dried beyond this point will re-absorb moisture from the air.)
- Use pure soap or gentle detergent when laundering linens.
- Soap works best in soft water. (In hard water it forms curds that makes fabrics dingy and stiff).
- Launder any stains when fresh. If allowed to set, stains may be impossible to remove at a later date.
- Use oxygen-type bleaches for white linen, instead of chlorine bleaches which can cause yellowing.
- Select a water temperature between warm to hot, depending on the care instructions.
- Place delicate or fringed linens in a pillowcase before putting them into a washing machine.
- Whether hand or machine washing, be sure to rinse the linen item completely in lots of water to remove all soap, detergent and residual soil. This will help to avoid formation of "age spots" which are caused by oxidation of cellulose (linen's primary component).
- Once rinsing and spinning cycles on a washing machine are complete, either line dry the linen items, lay them flat or hang garments -- all until slightly damp. Avoid wringing out linen before drying.
- Never tumble-dry linen as this can over-dry the fibers and makes ironing more difficult.
- Linen naturally dries quickly anyway.
- To keep white linens white, try drying them in the sun.
- Most people regard ironing as a chore. But ironing linen can become a less onerous task if you do it when the linen is damp. If linen is taken out of the dryer or off the line while still damp and then ironed immediately, the chore ceases to be a chore at all.
- Be sure the sole plate of your iron is clean and smooth for quicker and easier ironing.
- If you have a steam iron, check for mineral deposits, which can cause brown spotting.
- Check your ironing board and its cover. For speedy ironing, use well-padded board with smooth heat-reflective covers.
- Begin with dampened linen. Steam ironing dry linen is less effective than dry or steam ironing dampened linens. A professional steamer is the only appliance that provides enough steam to remove wrinkles from heavier linens. The steam from a household iron is just not enough.
- Store linen items in a plastic bag in the refrigerator or freezer from 6 to 24 hours before ironing. This will make them easier to iron and will prevent mildew.
- Use spray starch (if desired) and iron with a steam iron at a medium to hot setting.
- Starch provides extra crispness, particularly to napkins to be folded into fancy shapes.
- For a softer look, select spray-on fabric sizing instead. In a pinch, smooth things over with spray-on wrinkle remover.
- Iron on the wrong side first, then on the right side to bring out the sheen, especially damasks and light-colored linens.
- Iron dark linens on the wrong side only.
- Choose a temperature setting compatible with the fabric weight. Pure linen can withstand the highest temperature setting on your iron. Test an inconspicuous corner first.
- Iron linen until smooth but not dry. Once wrinkles are gone, hang the linen item until it is bone dry.
- When ironing embroidered linen, keep the embroidery stitches rounded and dimensional by pressing item on the wrong side atop a soft towel.
- Use a press cloth to safeguard delicate lace and cutwork. A press cloth also helps to avoid press marks over seams, hems and pockets.
- Place a table next to the ironing board when ironing large tablecloths. Roll finished sections of the cloth over the table rather than letting it pile up under the ironing board.
- Minimize creasing ironed tablecloths by rolling them around a tube or hanging them.
- Always launder or dry clean linen before storing. Soiled linen encourages mildew, so linens must be clean before storing.
- Ventilation, light and lack of available food discourage mildew growth. If mildew does attack your linens, brush the mold off outdoors to avoid scattering spores in your house. Then soak the linen item in a solution of oxygen bleach and water before laundering. If possible, dry in the sun.
- Be sure to rinse thoroughly all soap and detergent from linen items to avoid formation of "age spots," caused by the oxidation of cellulose linen's primary component.
- Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area.
- Use pure linen, cotton or muslin, not synthetics, as covers or garment bags.
- Use acid-free tissue paper, not regular tissue paper. The acids in regular tissue paper can yellow linen.
- Do not store linens in plastic bags, cedar chests and cardboard boxes. Fumes from petroleum-based polyurethane can rot and streak the fabric. Cedar fumes and the acids in unvarnished wood yellow linen, as does the acid in cardboard.
- When storing for a long time, refold the linen occasionally.
LINEN STAIN REMOVAL TIPS
Always follow CARE labels.
If you are going to launder, follow these instructions for removing stains.
BALLPOINT INK - Hold stain against towel, spray closely from behind with aerosol hair spray. Ink should transfer to towel
BEVERAGES - Soak in cool water. Re-wash with stain remover. Launder using chlorine bleach (if safe for fabric) or oxygen bleach.
BLOOD - Immediately rinse with cool water. For dried stains, soak in warm water with a product containing enzymes. Launder.
CANDLE WAX - Scrape off as much as possible with dull side of knife, then iron between absorbent paper, changing paper until wax is absorbed.
CHOCOLATE - Pre-wash with product containing enzymes in warm water or treat with pre-wash stain remover. Launder.
COLLAR, CUFF SOIL - Pre-wash with stain remover, liquid laundry detergent or paste of granular detergent and water. Launder.
COSMETICS - Pre-wash with stain remover, liquid laundry detergent or paste of granular detergent and water or rub with bar of soap. Launder.
DAIRY PRODUCTS - Soak in a product containing enzymes for at least 30 minutes (hours for aged stains). Launder.
DEODORANTS, ANTI-PERSPIRANTS - Pre-treat with liquid laundry detergent. Launder. For heavy stains pre-treat with pre-wash stain remover. Allow to stand 5 to 10 minutes. Launder using an oxygen bleach.
EGG - Soak in product containing enzymes. Launder.
FRUIT JUICE - Rinse with cool water.
GRASS - Soak in product containing enzymes. If stains persist, launder using a chlorine bleach (if safe for fabric) or oxygen bleach.
GREASE SPOTS, OIL - Pre-treat with pre-wash stain remover or liquid laundry detergent. For heavy stains, place stain face down on clean paper towels. Apply cleaning agent to back of stain. Replace paper towels under stain frequently. Let dry,
rinse and launder using hottest water safe for fabric.
LEMON, LIME JUICE, VINEGAR - Rinse immediately with cool water.
LIPSTICK - On pure linen, rub with a little salad oil to dissolve lipstick, then launder to remove oil.
MILDEW - Badly mildewed fabrics may be beyond repair. Launder stained item using chlorine bleach, (if safe for fabric). Or soak in oxygen bleach and hot water. Then launder.
PERSPIRATION - Use pre-wash stain remover or rub with bar of soap. If color of fabric has changed, apply ammonia to fresh stains, white vinegar to old stains and rinse. Launder using hottest water safe for fabric.
RED WINE - Cover with salt if stain is fresh, then rinse with cool water. If stain has dried, try club soda.
TAR - Scrape residue from fabric. Place stain face down on paper towels. Sponge with cleaning fluid. Replace towels frequently. Launder in hottest water safe for fabric.
TOMATO - Rinse with cool water.
WHITE WINE - Use club soda.
Fabrics, history and usage - COTTON April 09 2013, 0 Comments
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural condition, the cotton balls will tend to increase the dispersion of the seeds.
The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa, and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds. The English name derives from the Arabic al-kutun, which began to be used since 1400 aC.
The fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times; fragments of cotton fabric dated from 5000 bC have been excavated in Mexico and the Indus Valley Civilization (modern day Pakistan). Although cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cotton gin that so lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, and it is the most widely used natural fiber cloth in clothing today.
Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes annually, accounting for 2.5% of the world's arable land. China is the world's largest producer of cotton, but most of this is used domestically.
History of Cotton
Cotton was first cultivated in the Old World 7,000 years ago (5th millennium BC), by the inhabitants of Indus Valley civilization. Evidence of cotton cultivation has been found at the site of Mehrgarh, where early cotton threads have been preserved in copper beads. Cotton cultivation became more widespread during the Indus Valley Civilization, which covered a huge swath of the northwestern part of the South Asia, comprising today parts of eastern Pakistan and northwestern India. The Indus cotton industry was well developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the modern industrialization of India. Between 2000 and 1000 BC cotton became widespread in much of India. For example, it has been found at the site of Hallus in Karnataka around 1000 BC. The use of cotton textiles had spread from India to the Mediterranean and beyond.
Cotton fabrics discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, Mexico have been dated to around 5800 BC, although it is difficult to know for certain due to fiber decay. Other sources date the domestication of cotton in Mexico to approximately 5000 to 3000 BC.
The Greeks and the Arabs were not familiar with cotton until the Wars of Alexander the Great, as his contemporary Megasthenes told Seleucus I Nicator of "there being trees on which wool grows" in "Indica".
Cotton has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. It clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, and their use spread to the Mediterranean countries.
In Iran (Persia), the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era (5th century BC); however, there are few sources about the planting of cotton in pre-Islamic Iran. The planting of cotton was common in Merv, Ray and Pars of Iran. In the poems of Persian poets, especially Ferdowsi's Shahname, there are references to cotton ("panbe" in Persian). Marco Polo (13th century) refers to the major products of Persia, including cotton. John Chardin, a French traveler of 17th century, who had visited the Safavid Persia, has approved the vast cotton farms of Persia.
During the Han dynasty, cotton was grown by non Chinese peoples in the southern Chinese province of Yunnan.
In Peru, cultivation of the indigenous cotton species Gossypium barbadense was the backbone of the development of coastal cultures, such as the Norte Chico, Moche and Nazca. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets and traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish. The Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it.
During the late medieval period, cotton became known as an imported fiber in northern Europe, without any knowledge of how it was derived, other than that it was a plant; noting its similarities to wool, people in the region could only imagine that cotton must be produced by plant-borne sheep. John Mandeville, writing in 1350, stated as fact the now-preposterous belief: "There grew there [India] a wonderful tree which bore tiny lambs on the endes of its branches. These branches were so pliable that they bent down to allow the lambs to feed when they are hungrie. This aspect is retained in the name for cotton in many European languages, such as German Baumwolle, which translates as "tree wool" (Baum means "tree"; Wollemeans "wool"). By the end of the 16th century, cotton was cultivated throughout the warmer regions in Asia and the Americas.
Types of cotton
There are four commercially grown species of cotton, all domesticated in antiquity:
• Gossypium hirsutum – upland cotton, native to Central America, Mexico, the Caribbean and southern Florida, (90% of world production)
• Gossypium barbadense – known as extra-long staple cotton, native to tropical South America (8% of world production)
• Gossypium arboreum – tree cotton, native to India and Pakistan (less than 2%)
• Gossypium herbaceum – Levant cotton, native to southern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula (less than 2%)
The two New World cotton species account for the vast majority of modern cotton production, but the two Old World species were widely used before the 1900s. While cotton fibers occur naturally in colors of white, brown, pink and green, fears of contaminating the genetics of white cotton have led many cotton-growing locations to ban the growing of colored cotton varieties, which remain a specialty product.
Cleaning, Drying, Ironing and Storage
Probably the most common fabric in your closet — cotton fabrics require a few simple care tips to keep looking newer, longer.
While the care information for all cotton fabrics is similar, garments should be separated by weight. Lightweight cottons like tee shirts and knits should be washed and dried separately from heavier fabrics like denim.
Machine wash in a water temperature appropriate for the colour of the load. Use a wash cycle that is appropriate for the construction of the items in the load. Use a gentle cycle for loosely woven or knitted cotton garments.
Maximum temperature 95 ° C. Washing and rinsing with normal mechanical action centrifuação normal. Cotton linen (sheets, towels, white socks).
Maximum temperature 95 ° C. Washing and rinsing with reduced mechanical action and short centrifuação. Articles white cotton delicate structure. Tablecloths, embroidered sheets, etc..
Maximum temperature 60 ° C. Washing and rinsing with normal mechanical action centrifuação normal. Articles cotton solid color, work clothes, shirts etc..
Maximum temperature 60 ° C. Washing and rinsing with reduced mechanical action and short centrifuação. Articles polyester or cotton whites: sheets, shirts etc..
Maximum temperature 40 ° C. Washing and rinsing with normal mechanical action and short centrifuação.
Articles of cotton and polyester, cotton solid color.
Tumble dry while dryer drum is cool and use low heat settings or as recommended on care label. Alternatively, reshape the garment and lie flat to dry.
Drying on the machine possible
Do not dry on the machine.
Use the cotton setting on a warm iron while the garment is still damp.
The points located inside the iron indicate the maximum temperature. These points also appear in most modern irons.
High temperature: up to 200 ° C. Cotton, linen.
Do not iron. Cotton elastic.
Cotton is sensitive to mildew and acid. Dry garment thoroughly before storing. Store in a cool dry place out of direct sunlight.
1.To treat stains, first make sure your cotton clothing is indeed spotted before washing it. If you have any stain, the best thing to do is purchase a product compatible remover and specific to your garment and apply it. You can treat the stain located, ie, only on the spot and no other point of his garment. For this reason, spot treatment products come with a narrow tip applicator to treat a small area at a time, while removing the stain out of cotton fibers. Follow the instructions on the container before washing your cotton clothes. The treatment site allow you to remove the stains that otherwise would not be removed with normal washing.
2.The best way to clean cotton cloth is through the use of detergent. It is recommended to use regular laundry detergent with bleach for colored clothes safe color if desired. For white cotton clothes, you can still use chlorine, check the label of your cotton clothing to determine if the bleach is appropriate or not. Moreover, to maintain soft cotton clothing, use a fabric softener. If conservation is important to you, the best way to clean cotton clothing includes the use of concentrated detergent or cleaner "green" (environmentally friendly).
3.Use a washing machine is the best way to wash cotton clothes. For cotton clothes white or light, choose warmer water if you find that your clothes need washing extra. For darker colors, always choose cold water because hot water will cause the dyes on cotton fabric fade, leaving it faded. If your clothing is delicate (such as lingerie), choose the "delicate" or "hand wash," to other cotton clothing. If a user is concerned about the environment, always use cold water to avoid using extra energy.
4.To dry your cotton clothes, hang them. However, it is always safer to follow the label instructions on the special care of your clothes to determine the drying cycle of your drying machine. When in doubt, set the dryer to the lowest heat setting to avoid shrinking or fading of clothes.
Garments made of cotton are very delicate. To prevent them from being marked will turn them inside out when ironing and spray them with a little water so as to become wet.
How to remove some stains
Dissolves in the wash. Treat the stain with a little detergent, rub and rinse. For old stains, mixing the alcohol in water.
Coffee / Cocoa
Soak the piece in a concentrated detergent and rinse. If stains persist, soften with glycerine and rinse with warm water. Dealing with solvent stain.
Con-cleaning solvent or dry cleaning.
Remove the wax as you can. Then place a piece of cloth with the stain between two absorbent papers and pass with the iron at a moderate temperature. May be used benzene to remove traces. Finally, wash the garment as usual.
Use a spray specifically for chicle or place the garment in a plastic bag and then place in the freezer about 60 minutes. To eliminate the halo rub the affected area with a cloth soaked in acetone (except in tissues containing in its composition acetate, triacetate or modacrylic).
Soak the piece in a concentrated detergent and rinse. If stains persist, soften with glycerine and rinse with warm water. Dealing with solvent stain.
Remove the protruding part of the glue and then rub the stain with a cloth soaked in acetone. Do not use acetone in tissues containing in its composition acetate, triacetate or modacrylic. If so, wash the fabric normally.
Rub the affected area with Ethyl alcohol and allow to dry. Wash with soap and water. In most difficult situations, "immerse" the stain in a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (10 volumes) and water at a ratio of 1 to 3. Then wash with a detergent bleach.
Soak the garment in cold water and then rub the stain with soap and water. If the stain is already dry, should be dissolved in a mixture of warm water and glycerin for 60 minutes. Finally wash the garment in the machine.
Remove the fat with an absorbent cloth or pouring a little talcum powder on the stain. Wait a bit and brush. Rub the stain with soap and water (if the water let dry for 60 minutes). Finally, wash the usual manner.
Soak the stain in a mixture of water and alcohol for a few minutes and then wash the part.
Rinse immediately. May use a solvent with a base absorbent. The stains usually not older leaves.
Soak the stain in a mixture of water and detergent, 1 to 3 hours and then wash the part.
Apply on the affected area a solution of lemon juice and salt. Leave it on about two hours and rinse. Then rinse the machine.
Fabrics, history and usage - Intruduction March 27 2013, 0 Comments
We are starting here a series of informative articles about our primal materials - tissues.
We'll cover the history, the usage and the maintenance of the fabric types..
Advices, useful tips, you will also find that on this series of posts - Fabrics, history and usage.
We hope it will be an useful base of information for those who will acquire Willow Pillow products or any other brand.
Happy Birthday to US !!! February 13 2013, 0 Comments
It was on the 7th Feb. that we commemorate our 1st year of life
Happy birthday Willow Pillow !!!
Willow Pillow DIY Xmas gifts December 26 2012, 0 Comments
Now I can reveal what was happening on our kitchen and living room the last few days.
Homemade solutions to overcome the crisis. DIY: homemade coffee liqueur, pumpkinjam with nuts, sweets shaped cheeses, all in vintage package.
Thank you Elisabete (Willow Pillow) for once again showing us how much more comforting it is to give than to receive.
Willow Pillow wishes you all a Merry Christmas December 20 2012, 0 Comments
A new set: almost ready! September 28 2012, 0 Comments
A new set almost ready to be published here in Willow Pillow´s store.
Um novo coordenado quase quase prontinho a sair aqui na loja.
The Lady of the Flowers:Preview September 28 2012, 0 Comments
Working on the new collection for girls from 3 to 5 years.
A trabalhar na nova coleção para as meninas dos 3 aos 5 anos.